Folia Horticulturae

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Internal seed structure of selected ornamental species

Roman Hołubowicz*, Joanna Rutkowska**, Tomasz W. Bralewski*

**Department of Seed Science and Technology
**Faculty of Horticulture, August Cieszkowski Poznań Agricultural University
**Baranowo, 62-081 PrzeĽmierowo, Poland
**graduate student
**present address: D±brówka Ludomska 9, 64-603 Ludomy, Poland

In the years 1997-1999 a study of the internal seed structure of Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea f. plumosa Voss., Gomphrena globosa L., Calendula officinalis L., Callistephus chinensis Ness., Dahlia pinnata Cav., Rudbeckia hirta L., Tagetes erecta L., Zinnia elegans Jacq., Cheiranthus cheiri L., Iberis amara L., Matthiola bicornis DC., Dianthus chinensis L., Nigella damascena L., Reseda odorata L. and Viola × wittrockiana Gams. was conducted. The greatest variation in their size was observed in Zinnia elegans Jacq. and Tagetes erecta L. seeds, while Nigella damascena L. seeds had the greatest variation in the embryo size. The smallest variation in size was found in Reseda odorata L. and Viola × wittrockiana Gams. seeds and in embryo size in Tagetes erecta L. and Rudbeckia hirta L. seeds. The seeds of Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea f. plumosa Voss. and Gomphrena globosa L. had well developed perisperm, whereas Nigella damascena L. and Viola × wittrockiana Gams. seeds - endosperm. The thickest endosperm tissue was observed in Nigella damascena L. seeds, whereas the thinnest one in Reseda odorata L. seeds. The endosperm of the remaining species tested was not clearly seen. The embryos of Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea f. plumosa Voss., and Gomphrena globosa L. were located peripherally in seeds. In the rest of the tested species they were either located centrally or filled the whole seed. The remainig seeds had only thin layer of the endosperm cells. The seeds of Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea f. plumosa Voss., Gomphrena globosa L., and Dianthus chinensis L. had perisperm. The seeds of Tagetes erecta L., Dahlia pinnata Cav., Rudbeckia hirta L., Zinnia elegans Jacq., Cheiranthus cheiri L., Iberis amara L., and Matthiola bicornis DC. had no endosperm. Embryos in Amaranthus caudatus L., Celosia argentea f. plumosa Voss. and Gomphrena globosa L. seeds were located peripherally, whereas in the rest of the investigated species they were located centrally or the embryo filled the seed completely. The Asteraceae family seeds had thick pericarp adhering to the testa. The remaining species had clearly visible testa.

Hołubowicz R., Rutkowska J., Bralewski T.W., 2000. Internal seed structure of selected ornamental species. Folia Horticulturae 12/2: 93-109.