Productive forces and their reciprocal substitution in apiculture production
Institute of Horticultural Economy
Faculty of Horticulture, Agricultural University
29 Listopada 54, 31-425 Kraków, Poland
The analyses of the productive forces were carried out within the years 1982-1987 in 57 private apiaries.
The purpose of this work was to determine the correlation between the value of labor costs and the
standard of the long-term means of production equipment. The correlation between the
productive forces was analysed with correlation and polynomial regression.
The total labor costs per year averaged 1 058 man-hours, which in terms of one bee colony equals 11.5
man-hours. The capital invested in the long-term means of production of
averaged 2 035 500 zlotys, which in terms of one bee colony equals the sum
of 22 100 zlotys. In larger apiaries, lower unit labor costs were
observed. That trend occurrs independently of the standard of the means of
production. In the apiaries having a high level of equipment, lower labor
costs were consumed.
It was observed in the production process the occurance of the substitution of the productive
forces. In other word, a mutual substitutivity of alive hand labor by work
performed with technical equipment outlayed under the means of production was stated.
Marzec J., 1989. Productive forces and their reciprocal substitution in apiculture
production. Folia Horticulturae I/1: 75-83.